Land surveying deals with the data collection of the natural and man-made objects on the earth and represent these graphically in the form of maps. These maps are important source of data for planning several development activities on the earth. With the introduction of electronics, sensors, laser, and computer and automation, digital equipments and techniques offer accurate and current geospatial data economically. These geospatial data can be used to generate large scale digital maps required for various projects.
This book aims to provide information to readers about the modern tools and techniques which are being used world-wide for digital surveying and mapping tasks. The book covers the approaches of geospatial data collection and mapping methods, such as Electronic Total Station, Digital Levels, GPS, Airborne Laser Scanners (ALS), Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Satellite Images, Drones/Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Geographic Information System (GIS). The GPS, high resolution satellite images, Laser data, Drones/UAVs and GIS have not only made the surveying and mapping tasks easier and faster but also have contributed immensely in multi-disciplinary applications. The book also highlights the latest techniques, such as Computer Vision, Visualization of data in 2D and 3D, Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data Analytics, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and Cloud Computing, which are found to be very useful in land surveying and mapping for developing innovative applications
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